Afterwards you won't need a structure like this. You wouldn't be able to build it while the winds were howling or the cold was freezing both you and the concrete anyway. When everything calms down the best type of structure would probably be similar to that built by Native Americans for centuries. Then we would probably just dig a big circular hole in a well drained place, with earth floors and trees bent to a dome shape for the roof. Thatched or whatever's available in pieces of old structures, etc. With a big hole in the center of the roof for the smoke to exit.
Another good Indian trick for temporary shelter is to find a cluster of saplings and bend them over and tie them to each other without cutting them down. They are already anchored down and after being bent can be thatched, etc. to provide reasonable cover. When you leave just remove the rope you used to tie them up (you'll want to keep that anyway) and everything is restored to its original natural state. The Earth Mother would smile on you for that and other poor wandering souls would be able to re-use the same camp in the future instead of finding a bunch of rotting logs.
Offered by Ron.